Friday, May 24, 2024

Kokborok: Sampilini Jorao

Chini “Tripura” wngkha Bharat hakotorni kwchamkuk sirisiti bai kupulung kaisa chikonsa haste. O haste Bharatni Northeasto tongbainai ‘Bukhuk khoroksni’ni bisingo khoroksa kwlaio.

 Buphang-uaphang, hathai-hapung tei twima-twisa bai sikla soksajak tei gwdaljak hukumu tei chukha chini Tripurao kwbangma dalbidal dophani borokrok tongbaio tei aro tongnai jotonini slai kwchamkukrok wngkha ‘Borok dopha’. Borok dophani borokrok salaimani kok eba borokni mani koknono hwno kokborok.  Chini o amani kok kokborok “Tibeto-Chinese” kok bumani oknise achaio tei “Tibeto-Burman” kok nukhungni khobjago.  Chini kokborok kokni bosong songsni (7) tongo tei aborok wngkha – Dimasa, Bodo, Kuch, Mech, Chutia, Garo tei Moran. Chini kokborok kokno sanai bedek dopharok wngkha: Tripuri, Reang, Jamatia, Koloi, Noatia, Murasing, Rupini tei Uchoi.

Aro kokthaisa sathai klaio, chini kokborokno twiwi samung tanglangnairok  (research khlainairok) kokborokno Tipura, Tipra, Tiperrah eba Mrung hwnwise swilaibailangkha. Omorok kheno hai- T.H Lewin bini thumjak kokborok kokthai-buthubni mwng rwna thangwi swikha: “Vocabulary of the Tiperrah and of the Lushai or kuku languages”. Boh haino Sir George Abraham Grierson bini ‘Linguistic survey of India’o kokborokno “Tipura’ hwnwi se swio.

Ayang, linguistic Sunit Kr. Chattopadhya bo bini sinijak kuknai bijabo “The Origin and Development of the Bengali Language’o Kokborokno “Mrung’ eba Tipura’ hwnwi swikha.

Oro tei kokthaisa sathai klaio, o “Tipera” eba “Twiprasa”  bahaikhe twlwk twlwk  Kokborok mwng mankha – abono twiwi swikwrwng Mr.NC Debbarma swikha (Binoy Debbarmani Anglo-Kokborok-Bangla Dictionaryni Forwardo), 7th century ADo ha kotor chin-ni berainai Hueng Tsang Bharat ha kotorni salka phaichingo kotor kuarma Bodo dophani bubagra khoroksani rajakhor khungsa “Ha” tonglangmani kokno naituk karikha, (aborok tabuk Bangladeshni bisingo khobjak thangbaikha).

Ulo, jorano rwgwi kochogwi thangwi a bodo dophani bubagra khoroksa bini sagrirokno twiwi teibo yagra babaini phaiching naharwi phaikha tei twiyung (Brahmaputra), Songrongma (Ganga) tei Borak twima (Barak river) o twima twngthamni buprao borok tongna chenglaikha.  Chini kokborokbai twi kwrwnglaimani  ‘thai’(place) no hwno “Twibupra” eba “Twipra”. Abono ulo wngwi thangkha Tripura. O dophani borokrokno ulo borok dophani mwngwi sinijago.  Bohrok twimano swnamnai mwtai hwnwibo poito khlaimabaino sakbaithangno borok a twimani bwsa hwnwi chonglaikha. Haikheno bohrok sak baithango sinimung rwlaikha, “Twibuprani bwsa, Twiprasa, Triprasa, Tipra eba Tripuri.  A borokrokni mani kok Tipra eba Tripurano ulo khe kokborok mungwi sinimung mano”.

Laibuma bwlaino philwi naikhe chini mokolo kwlaio, chini Tripura hao jotowi bubagra khorok 184 naikolwi thangbaikha. Phiyaba, Bubagra Birchandra Manikyani yaktwise “Mol kwtalni” dugar  phiyokjago.

Chwng jotono sawi mano chini ha bubagrarok sakni dophani borokrokno rwngrwi saimanrwi tisana nailanglia. Bohrok phatarni borokno tubuwi se ha naikolna samungni  kuchukkuk achukthairogo achuk rwphailaikha. Tei bubagra Birchandra Manikyani molo yakamsa bwskang sewi mani kok kokborokno karwise buini koknose ha naikolna samungo gosewi nalaikha.  Omohaikhe twlwk twlwk Kokborok bini nokni phataro dagarwjakna chengo.

Omohai jora kwdwkma yagulo, swikwrwng Radha Mohon Thakur (DB) tei Kazi Daulat Ahmedni kokborok kokrwbai swnama mol phaio (1900-1917). Radha Mohan Thakurni “Kokborok ma” (Kokborok Grammar) 1900 bisi, “Kok Borma” tei “Kokma kalai” (1307 bangla bisi), chini Kokborok kokrwbaini hor mwnakma thwisono tal kwchwngma phasawi rwphaio.

Oro kok thaisa sathai kwlaio, Birchandra Manikyani molo (1876-77) bini sajla Yubraj Radha Kishore “Tripuri- Bangla” kokma kangsa swilangkhapho hwnwi. Omo kok kubui wngkha hwnkhe Radha Kishore da Kokborok sanai bisingo jotoni swkang

kokborokbai swilangkhana?

Bohrokno karwibo chini kokborokni hamkhraini bagwi saheb khoroksni chini kokno research khaiwi report kwlang thangbaikha. Bohrok wngkha  Sir A phayre, HC Sutherlang, TH Lewin, Sir WW Hunter, Rev. S Endle, ID Anderson tei Sir G.

 Campell.

Bohrokni yagulo chwng Kokborok kokrwbai swnamao swikwrwng Bangshi Thakur, Ajitbandu DB, Jiten Thakursongni mwngno nugo.

Aboni yagulo “Janashikha Andulan’ni ‘kwtal kothoma’ni mol (1954-57) haphaio. O Kokborok kokrwbai bwlaini yasi romwino chini swikwrwng Sudhana DBni kothomayung “Chethuang” (1956) rem bwtangkhe nongkhoro.Sudhana DB 1962 bisio hajaribak olongo tongphuru swimani kothomayung “Hachukni Khurio” (Rabindra sokat manjak) chini Kokborok kokrwbaini nokha mwnakmao aitorma pasawi rwphaikha. O kothomayungni yasi romwino ulo chini borok hodani sampili swikwrwng Shyamlal Debbarmani kothomayung “Khong” (Salil Krishna Debbarma sokat manjak) swijago.

Ulo kwtal kothoma kokrwbai bwlaio swijak nukjakmarok wngkha:Kokborok – swikha Sudhana Debbarma, Tamo sadi– swikha Pulin Debbarma, Muitu khwlaidi suikha Dasharath DB, etc.

Chini kok Kokborokno chwngsasa eba hamsarwna bagwi kwbang kokthum bwlai- “Chini Kok”, “Sachwlang” “Horjwlai”rokni saktharmung nukjago. Omono karwibo Kokborok Unnayan parishad, Tripura Rajya kokborok sahitya sabha, Kokborok sahitya sanskriti sangsad, kokborok Hukumu Mission etc. Chini mani kok Kokborok hamkraini lamao Scriptno twiwi kok banglaima, spelling methodno twiwi kok pherlaima,  teibo podrepod kebebengmung tonglaiphano 1978 bisio chini Kokborok kokno govt. language hwnwi gosewi najakmabai tabuk kwbangma school, college, university officerogo chini kokno phwnangjagwi tongkha. Chini borokni bisingo saktharwi tongnairokni bisingtwi chwng kwbangma sakphang tisawi tongo.

Paithago, ang kok thaisa manjuna muchungphiro o sal kisaswk swkango Tripura hasteni Govt. Kokborok hamkhraini bagwi khakjak Directorate swnamna gosekha. Bwswk jorao sogwi naile saimansugya phano ang kha chongo Kokborokno hamjaknai tei Kokborok hamkhraini bagwi sakthar tongnai jotoni lenglaya saktharmung  tei chubachu baino chini mani kok Kokborok salsaya salsa jorani sampilino ekhagwi sakphang tisawi bachanai tei hayung bangmasing bini rangchakni kokthai pirjaknai.

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