KOK-AMA

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‘‘Amani kokno sana thangkhe sawi kul paiya. Jotono janija kok-amano hamjago – aro mungsa kha mithikma kwrwi.’’

AMA samani kokno AMANI KOK eba bathongrwi MANI KOK eba KOKAMA hwno. Hayungo kok sawi tongnai bebak boroknino kokama tongo tei tongnani kok. Phiyaba kha mithikmabo tongo. Tamoni hwnba Motherland tongmahai Fatherland bo tongo. Phiyaba Mother tongue tongmatwi Father tongue-le nugyakho. Haiphano mwkthango nukjakmakhe juda.

Hodao tongma bagwi borok nok-nukhung khao, bosong ero. Chini hodani raida, tongmung chamungrokno chwng karwi manya wngmabai hoda tongmatwino chwngbo tongna nango. Aboni bagwino nukjago KOK-AMA eba Mothertongue hwnwi bumung pharthani bo jwngjal. Yasi kaiwi phunukna thangkhe sathai kwlaio:- Borok khoroksani buma bai bupha bosong songsa, kok thansa hwnkhe aro jwngjal nukjagya, phiyaba bumani bosong tei kok bai buphani bosong tei kok pherlaijak hwnkhe aro jwngjal nukjago. Jwngjal nukjakmano paisukna bagwi lukurok buphani bwkhago thanglaio, thangwi tongo. Chwrai khoroksa achaikha hwnkhe bini bosong sinimung buphano rwkthar rwjago, phiyaba bumani kokno kisaphano uansugwi nailiya. Abo Pha-rwkjak hodani bwthai. Romdi, chwrai khoroksani buma Uainjwk tei bupha Tipra hwnkhe a chwraini kok-ama tamo wngnai. Kokthong rwgwi a chwraini kokama Bangla se wngthai tongmani. Phiyaba hodani tongmung chamung rwgwi bini kokamaTipra kok (Kokborok)-se wngo. Chwraini buma kaijagwi phaimabai, tabukni hodani raidarok bojagwi tongmabai bini bosong sinimung bo bwsaino ma rwgkha, bini achaimani sinimung sokomorjakkha, kok sanani eba samani sinimung gwnangwi sokomorjakkha, sokomorjagwi tongo. Kok wngkha, Bwrwi khoroksa kaijakmabai simi bini bosong sinimung kwmajakkha, kok-rwgwi sinijakmung eba kok bosongbo sokomorjakkha! Omotwi tongmung chwraini buma-bai bupha bosong songsa eba kok thansa hwnkhe jwngjal nukjagya, buma bupha bosong kaisaya hwnkheno o jwngjal nukjago.

Borok tei kubun langma gwnangrok puila phaisingo hoda khajaknani swkangdrobo eba hodani primary ‘stage’o buma eba MA rwgjak tongmani. Ulo tep tepkhe pha rwkjak hoda achaikha tei chwngbo rwgwi tonglaikha. Hodani primary ‘stage’o PHAni sinimung kwrwi, MAni sinimung simise tongo. Swih, uak, tokrokno naikheno nuganw swima bwsarokno twiwi tongo, phiyaba a swi bwsarokni sinimungo buphani sinimung kwrwi, bumani sinimungse! Swih bwsarok bupha sabo siniya, phiyaba buma sabo sinio. Obotwikheno kubun yabrwirogni bisingobo nukjago. Chini borok munuisurokbo obotwino wngkha, puila phaisingo buphani sinimung kwrwi, bumani sinimung simise, ulo chwlarok hodani bokhorogo achukmani ulo bwrwirokni sinimungno sokomorkha, baithang (chwla) sinimungno hodani sakao boksinwi rwkha, aboni bagwino tabuk borokni sinimungo bosong eba kokni bechebo buphani kokse sajago, bumani ya. Phiyaba borok achaina hwnkhe bwrwi bai chwla nangsugo. Hwnkhe bumani sinimungbo bwsarok narwknani nangmani. Kok hwnkhe kok-amano twiwi bathorong barsalaiphano barsanairok pha-rwkjak borokrok eba chwlarok simi hwnwi samase kwlaikhana hwnwi ang kha khwlaio. Bini bagwino bwrwi eba bumani bosong sinimung, kok sinimungno gosijagya, eba yachakjagya. Phiyaba bumung pharthani bwrwirokno narwkjakkha, samungo phwnangjakliya.

Aswk kok kolokma samani ulo tabuk sawimano, kok-amani bagwi saktharmung, sanmung akorogo hoda kubuljak pher tongo. Kok hwnkhe santhani, saktharthani rejo tongo. Haiphano hodao tongjamaba hodani raidano rwgwino ma tongthai. Amani kokno sana thangkhe sawi kul paiya. Jotono janija kok-amano hamjago – aro mungsa kha mithikmung kwrwi.

Chwng chini kok-amano hamjago hwnwi sanani swkang chwng sak baithangno bwswk hamjak eba kubui kubuide chwng borom rw, hamjak abo kisa cherwi naithai. Chwng lukuni bwskango kok-ama eba amano hamjago hwnwi muktwi khiklaiphano amani borom bwswk narwkkha? chwng chini sago amani sinimung bwswk tonkha abono kisa sak baithang swngwi naithai.

Amano hamjakmatwino kok-amano hamjakmabai amani hamkrai naimabai baksa kok-amani hamkraibo bebakno naio. Phiya tabukni tongmung chamungno naharwi o sanmungrok bwswkba bumuk perno-perya kha mithikma phaio. Kok-amani hamkraini bagwi sanmungrokni bisingo nukjago – i) kok-ama bai rwngnokrogo swrwngmung chengnani. ii) kok-ama-no amchaini bugra-samung eba haphang samungni kok (administrative language) hwnwi saklainani, iii) kok-amano hatini kok (business language) khwlainani, iv) kok-ama-bai kokrwbai (literature)-ni samung tangthani chubachu rwnani sanmung abotwirok.

Tabukni jorao kok ama-bai swrwngnani sanmarok khwnakhe o sanmung bwswk chasano eba nade nang kha mithikma phaio. Tamni hwnba, yaksi yagra bebak phaising naharkhe English mang se! Hayung gwnangwino tabuk lukurok English phwrwngnani saktharlaimani nukjagwi tongo. Kebo usului tongna naiya! Obotwi jorao kok-amabai swrwngnani eba phwrwngnani sanmarok kisa khapiya haikhe nukjago. Tamoni hwnba o kokno swrwngwi chwrairokni tamo hamkrai wngnai?  Bo samungo nang? Hati-habao samung de nang? O swngmung kasao. Je kok tabukbo hatini mwkhang nugyakho bono swrwngwi tamo manmari mannai? Abo-le kok kubui. Jesa bo kokbai swrwngnani hamkraini kok samabai baksa tangwi chanani lama eba samung manthokmungbo kubuljak tongo. Samungose nangya eba samungo phwnangnani saktharjagya hwnkhe  kok-amani sanmung aswk samungno nangwlak. Kok-amani hamkrai sanmani bisingni kok wngkha, kubuljak luku bosongni borokrok samung tangnani sep kwtal manmung, mannani saktharmung. A kokrok le kubuino, phiyaba nok arini borokni hamkrai nugui khatungwi ani nogno soksai rwmani chade cha? A kokbo sakno swngwi naithai. Chwng hamkraini lamao himnai, phiyaba sakni logeo tongma manwino yakargwlak, yakarkhe chagwlak. Buinino nawi sakni swnamwi sakni samungo phwnangwi mankheno sakni hamkrai wngo. Kok-ama-bai swrwngnani, phwrwngnani sanmung tabukni kokya, Goutam Buddhani joraono nukjakkha. Aswk kwcham sanmungphano o sanmung tabukbo salburumno kwtalkhe nukjagwi tongo. Sanmungno khwnawi sanmung rwnani gosimung rwmani ulobo chengthani jwngjal nukjago. O jagao jwngjal babainwikhe khagwi naiwi mano; babaisa wngkha kubuljak bosongni borokrokni bising, tei thaisa wngkha kubuljak amchaini naikolphang eba haphangni naimungni gwrwng. Swrwngnani sanmung manmani ulo phwrwngthani nukjakma jwngjalrokni bising kubuljak luku-bosongni jwngjal wngkha i) phwrwngnani bagwi nangmani manwi eba contant manthogya wngma. ii) Kubuljak luku bosongni swrwngnairokni bising swrwngnani khatungya wngma eba Interest kwrwi wngma.

Jesabo kokni hamkrai bwswk wngnai abo kubuljak amchaini haphang a kokni hamkraino bobotwi mokolbai nai abono rwgwino wngnai. Raja nai hamya naikhe hamya wngnai, nai kaham naikhe kaham wngnai. Raja nai-kaham naimabai Hibrew Language jora kaisao kwmajak phano Palesteine country khajakmani ulo jai jaikhe language planning romjakmabai tabuk jora kaisani dead language se live language wngkha. Palestine ha khajakmani ulo borokni haphang (Govt.) ni kok Hibru khwlainani bagwi saktharkha, Language planning romkha, bisi 20-ni bisingono jora kwdwkmani kok kwthwi thangwi thangkha! Phiya chini kok-amani kok-khe! Bisi kwdwkmani kwthang kokse tabuk thwimeremere! Haphang eba amchai naikolphangni phaisingtwi nukjakma jwngjalrok wngkha:

i) Phwrwngmung bobotwi wngnai aboni bechebo swrai swrai raidarok chapjagya kwrwi wngma (Clear education policy).

ii) Swrwngnani bagwi nangmani bekherepni biyal. Bepherepni biyal hwnwi sathani nangmani phwrwngnai rwjagya wngma, swrwngnani bagwi nangmani bijaprok jorao

manthogya wngma abotwirok

kwbangmano khopjago.

Tripura hasteo tongnai borokrokni bising luku bangthani Bangla kok sanai borokrokni lamchidrobono tongo Kokborok sanai lukurok.

Chini o hao Kokborok sal kwdwkmani simi sajagwi phaiphano swijakmani kwbang balugyakho. Baithangni kokno twiwi samung tangnani eba hamkraini bagwi saktharna hwnkhe bini laibuma (History)-rogbo kisa sawi mankhe hamo. Thanai 2000 bisio chini kok swijakmani bisi sara (100) khonkha hwnwi palailaijakkha. Phiyaba aphuruno kok kasakha, kubuide bisi 100 swkang kokborok swijak. Nukjakkha aphuruni 100 bisi laijak. Tabuk joratwi swijak kokborok manjakmani hwnkhe teisa juda se wngwi tongo. Tripura governmentni khatikhoro SURYA PHUJA KHELAIMANI mungwi yakbai swijak lekha tongo. Abo bwswk kwcham kebo sai manya. Tamni hwnba, aro rwjakma kokrok belai primary levelni kok, tabuk chwng salaimani kokbai khapiya simiya, kubun bosongni kokthairokbo sapuljak.

Laibumao manjakmatwi 1703 ADo Durgaprasad Narayan Tripura mungwi borok khoroksa bubagra Mahendra Manikyani kothoma yakbai swimani tongo hwnwi khwnao. Phiyaba tabuk le tei rutugwi manliya. 1703 ADni ul 1876-77 ADo British political agent sir J.D. Anderson juda juda kokrokno swiwi chapmani manjakkha. Bo English, Boro, Rabha, Lalung, Dimasa, Hoji, Garo, Tipura, Chutiya kokrokno bwtangkhe swikha. Bini ulo Linguistic survey of Indiao Sir Giyarson chini kokno swimani maribo manjakkha. Borokno karwibo Phayre, Sutherland, T.H. Hunter. H. Captein Lewin, Sir W.W. Enle, Camphbell, Sir G.T.H. Bolton akosongbo chini kokno twiwi kisamasa swilaimanirok nukjakkha. Yang sal kudukma ulo 1897 bisi A Kaji Dulad Ahammad M.M. Dahar bo kokborma swimani manjakkha. Bini lamchidrobo no phaikha Thakur Radhamohon. Bini sal kudukma ulo 1936 AD-o Khusikrishna Tripura kokborok rwchapmungni bijap tikhwlaimani manjakkha.

1945-50 ADo tei kaisa beremo

sichaphima haikhe matongo.  Tripura Hasteni laibumao swlaijakmani jora. Bubagrani naikolmung paywi India bai hapma jorao chini kokbo kiyoknani lama kisa mankha hwnwi sawimano. Aphuru chini mokjak dophani mokol pajak borokrok saktharlaikha kok, hukumu, dopha hamkraini bagwi. Aboni ulo 1950-1960 ADo chini kokbai swinai borok bangkha. Kothoma, Koklob, koktang swijakkha kwbangma. Aborokni ulo 1960-1980 AD chini kokni bechebo swlaijakmung kwtalni boyar hapma belaino sajakthothok wngo. O jorao 1964 bisio Bangla kokno hani kok hwnwi gosijakkha. Logeo chini kokno hani kok hwnwi gosijakyaphano rwngnokrogo phwrwngnani bagwi bisi brum class kaisa khe bangrwi twlangnani sajakkha, hamkraini kokrok sajakkha. Phiyaba mwkthango bwswk samung chakha abo jotono saimanbai o. Ulo 1979 bisio chini kok Tripura governmentni kok hwnwi gosijakkha tei hamkraini bagwi saktharnani sajakkha. O joraono eba 1972 bisio puila Kokborok Sahitya Sabha khajakkha. Oboni ulo TTAADC khajakkha, bosong ur patilaikha, Agartala bijap ter chengkha! Agartala bijap ter chini kokni hamkraio nangsukmani yapri kaisa romwi tongo hwnwi sathani kha mithikma kwrwi. Bijap ter achukmabai bijap tikhwlainani muchungnairok tikhwlainani tei phalnani seprok mankha. Ulo 1983 bisini simi puila rwngnokrogo kokborokbai phwrwngnani chengjakkha. Phiyaba a phwrwngmungrokni raida jai jaikhe chapjagyani bagwi dropoutni jwngjalbo nukjakkha. 2005 bisini ulo rwngnokrogo kokborok phwrwngnani raidarokno kisa swlaiwi tabuk phwrwngnani chengjakkha, phwrwngjagwi tongo. Tabuk rwngnok, College, Universityrogo kokborok phwrwngjagwi tongo.

Kok hwnkhe kokborok swimani bisi kwdwkmano wngkha. Phiyaba tabuk kwtalkuk jorani Democracyni jorao phaiwibo chini kok kahamkhe kiyogwi buibai baksa khalai thansa chalainani sep manya! O manyani pher tamo? Manyani pher Haphangni simide kwlai? Chini le kwrwi de? Kogono tongo, kapnai chwrai se abuktwi ma chao. Kabya hwnkhe akol kaham abuk charwjagya! Hwnkhe chwng kabya de tongma kwlai? Kabo! Phiyaba khorang torwi kapmani khwnaya! Lachitwtwi kap-sikok kapmahai! Aboni bagwino buirokbo chwngno thwngthokjago!

Kok-ama Kokborokni hamkraini bagwi kokborok sanairok jaikheno saktharlai tongo, o kok le kubui. Phiyaba saktharlaithani je muchungtwi nukjagwi tongkha. Tabuk nukjakma jwngjal kotorrokni bising puilano sathai kwlaio swithai eba scriptni jwngjal. Script chini baithangni kwrwi, abole kok kubui. Swkangno KOLMA BOROK tongo hwnwi baksa baksani khugo khwnakha, phiyaba mwkthango nugyakho. Baithangni swithai kwrwi hwnkhe buini swithaino solok ma nanai ebakhe ma swnamnai. Chini dophani borokrokni bising tabukni jorao swithai chapnani eba taknani rwngmarigwnang borokni biyal tongo, sana thangkhe kwrwi. Hwnkhe solok ma nanai. Ganao je manthokmani abono no ma nathai kwlaio. Chwng ganao manna wngkha Khorusthi eba Roman eba English swithai, tei kaisa wngkha Bhrahmmi eba Bangla swithai. Abotwini bagwi je swinairok borok manmani swithaibai swilai tongkha, sanmungbo kasakha. Phiya o jagao haphangni tongmung kisa uanamasingcha!

Swithaini jwngjal chwrairokni bagwi wngya, je bororok swrwngwi paikha borokni bagwise jwngjal. Chwrai khoroksa puila swrwngnani phaiphuru bini bwskango jesa swithaiphano baksano nangjaknai. Phiyaba je borok swrwngwi paijak, bini thani kwtalkhe swrwngmung jwngjalno nangjaknai. Tei thaisa kok wngkha swithai sanlaiwi, kokno twiwi politics thwnglaima! Abo belai chaliya. Politics hodao nango, phiyaba bebak jagao ya.

Tabukni jorao chini kokni tei kaisa jwngjal wngkha, kwtalkhe swinairok kwrwi wngma. Jotono Janija samungbai kubuljak, kokni hamkraio jotono kha nangbaio, phiyaba a kokno practice khwlainai aswk kwrwi. Swinai, porinai, swrwngnai se kwrwi hwnkhe bahaikhe kokni hamkrai wngnai? Kokni bagwi jeswk kha nangmani, sakni mano jeswk hamjakmani aswkkhe swithani eba kokni hamkraio yapri kha kwthar bai seyasak kokni hamkrai wngwlak.

Haphang tamo nai naiya aboni

bagwi eba haphangno chini bwkhago tubunani, chwngno nahar rwnani bagwi chwng saktharlainai, phiyaba chwng chini kokni hamkraini bagwi chwng sak baithangno teisa jai khwlai nalaimano. Swkango samahai Amano hamjakkha hwnkhe amani hamkrai naikha hwnkhe amani bagwi samung tangthai. Amani hamkrai khwlaina hwnkhe, amani mukumu narwkna nangnai. Amani mukumu narwkna bagwi chwng swkang sakno swnamphina nangnai. Sakno hamjagwi manya hwnkhe ma-no hamjagwi manya, mano hamjagwi manyakhe bosong hamjagwi manya, haikhe bosong komorwi thangnai. Jwngjal kwbangmano tongo, samung tangna thangkhe jwngjal phainai. Phiyaba jwngjalno yakagwi se manya hwnkheba bahaikhe chalainaiba! Sakno hamjakmatwi tabukno tei kisabo leryawi kokni hamkraio yapri sethai. Haphangno chwng joto sebwi romwi chini bwkhago tubuma bai baksa chwng sak baithangbo tabukno swinani, sanani, porinani bagwi saktharlaithai.

By Laxmidhan Murasing

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